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4th Edition of World Congress on Infectious Diseases

June 21-22, 2023 | Rome, Italy

June 21 -22, 2023 | Rome, Italy
Infection 2023

Seumko o Ndeumou Medouen Reine

Speaker at World Congress on Infectious Diseases 2023 - Seumko o Ndeumou Medouen Reine
University of YaoundeI-Cameroon, Cameroon
Title : Seroprevalence of cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pre-COVID-19 samples collected from cameroonian women during pregnancy and at delivery

Abstract:

Background: The COVID-19 Pandemic still causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Significantly more cases of COVID-19 and its related deaths are reported in High-Income countries compared to Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). This might be due to pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies to other human coronaviruses in the LMIC setting. It is also unclear whether these antibodies circulate amongst pregnant women and can be acquired transplacentally. Our study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pre-COVID-19 samples collected during pregnancy and at delivery from women in three settlements in Cameroon.

Methods: A total of 1,272 archival plasma from pregnant women (615) and from women at delivery (657)  among which 483 were maternal/cord blood plasma pairs collected from 2009 to 2019, were tested for COVID-19 using the Abbott Panbio TMCOVID-19 IgG/ IgM rapid diagnostic test that captures antibodies to viral N protein. Samples from 119 (9.36%) women were collected from the rural area, 705 (55.42%) in the peri-urban area, and 468 (35.22%) in an urban area at different antenatal visits. Samples from the peri-urban area were split into pregnancy (293) and delivery (966) arms. To ascertain our findings, randomly selected IgG & IgG/IgM positive samples were further tested by the Luminex technology specific for viral N and S proteins Data was summarized in proportions.

Results: Overall, 13.66% (84/615) of pregnant women were seropositive for COVID-19 RDT, among whom, 15.48% (13/84) were from rural areas, 52.38% (44/84) from peri-urban areas, and 32.14% (27/84) from urban areas. During pregnancy 23.08% (3/13), 2.2% (1/44), 33.33% (9/27) of the women were IgG positive while 0 % (0/13), 2.2% (1/44), 3.7% (1/27) of pregnant women were seropositive for both IgG and IgM in rural areas, peri-urban and urban respectively Using the Luminex technology9.38% (3/32) of pregnant women seropositive to anti-coronaviruses IgG directed against the S-protein only and 3.13% (1/32) of pregnant women seropositive to anti-coronaviruses IgG directed against both of these protein N and S.

At delivery, the seroprevalence of COVID-19 using the Abbot kit was 19.33% (127/657) among which were 14.17% (18/127) and 5.51% (7/127) for IgG and both IgG and IgM respectively. With the Luminex technique, 15% (3/20) of women at delivery were seropositive foranti-coronaviruses IgG directed against the S-protein only and 35% (7/20) of women at delivery seropositive for anti-coronaviruses IgG directed against both of these protein N and S. A transplacental transfer of protective S proteins from the mother to the child was found in 60 % (3/5) of the tested dyads. .

Conclusions: This study provides evidence of existing of cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among pregnant Cameroonian women in the Pre-COVID-19 era and that, these antibodies can be transferred transplacentally. However, the protective nature of these antibodies should be investigated further.

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