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4th Edition of World Congress on Infectious Diseases

June 21-22, 2023 | Rome, Italy

June 21 -22, 2023 | Rome, Italy
Infection 2023

Bernsah Damian Lawong

Speaker at World Congress on Infectious Diseases 2023 - Bernsah Damian Lawong
Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
Title : The long-run relationship between neglected tropical diseases and various forms of health expenditure in Nigeria from 2013 to 2019


Nigeria accounts for 25% of Neglected Tropical Disease (NTDs) burden. The disease tends to impact negatively on wellbeing and productivity. Efforts via health expenditure for NTDs programme have not improved health outcomes. The study examines long-run relationship between various forms of expenditures government counterpart funding, private foreign and population at risk of the diseases, with the hope of strategizing policies on funding. Therefore, the research question is “is there any long-run relationship between various forms of expenditures on NTD programme and population at risk of the disease?

Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted for the period 2013-2019. Data was sourced from Global Health Expenditure Database of World Health Organization for 2022 and Nigeria NTD Master Plan for 2015-2020. Data was converted from annual to monthly to obtain the required number of observations that will match the variables for the regression. The population at risk data was later log-transformed so that it could be in similar unit with those in rates. The properties of the data were further tested using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test. Data was analyzed using Johansen Cointegration Test as suggested by the data and the objective of the study.

Results: ADF test revealed that government, private, foreign expenditures; NTD expenditure to health ratio and health expenditure to Gross Domestic Product ratio were integrated-of-order-one, while population at risk was integrated-of-order-zero. The cointegration results showed that all variables were cointergrated as indicated by the Trace Statistics of 135.5, 103.5, 76.0, 52.9, 29.9 and 6.9, which were all higher than their corresponding critical values of 95.8, 69.8, 47.9, 29,8, 15.5 and 3.8 respectively at the 5% level of significance. This implies a long-run relationship among the variables. Implying, any form of expenditure will help in reducing the population at risk of the disease.

Conclusions: There is a long-run relationship between population at risk and various forms of expenditures on NTD programme. Implying, various forms of expenditures are significant in reducing the population at risk of the NTDs. Therefore, more resources need to be deployed in the forms of these various expenditures, if plan eliminating NTDs is to be achieved.

Key words: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), Health Expenditure, Health Outcomes, Johansen Cointergration Test, Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) Test, Unit Root Test, Nigeria

Audience take away: 
? Understanding funding and sources in NTD programme, this is necessary for conduct of Neglected Tropical Diseases activities
? Understand that there is hope in the on-going expenditure from all the sources: government, private and foreign donor and partners. However, this needs to be properly mobilized to facilitate the conduct of activities.
? There is need for data on NTD programme to be presented by specific disease programme so that the researches and analysis can be disease specific. This will focus and prioritize research and therefore implementation of evidence based research. However, this does not rule out the idea of integration of the disease for the purpose of cost-effectiveness.
? There is a long run relationship among the various expenditure and population at risk of the disease. This suggest that increasing expenditure will continue to affect reduce the population at risk of the disease.


I obtained First/Master Degree in Economics in 1998/2002 respectively from Department of Economics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and joined the services of same institution, February 2005. In 2013 I obtained a PhD in economics from the same institution and in 2021 was promoted to the rank of an Associate Professor. Since then, I have been involved in teaching/supervision/research. Since 2006 I have worked with different organizations/ministries as researcher, consultant and disease programmes for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sightsavers, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Federal and State Ministries of Health Kaduna and Ogun. I have published more than 20 articles.