Title : What are the most prevalent bacterial, viral, fungal, and PID infections in women living with HIV, and how are they detected?
There are currently an estimated 39.0 million people living with HIV around the world. Sexually transmitted infections, also known as STDs, continue to be a major public health challenge in developing countries. The prevalence of STIs, including bacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and bacterial vaginosis), viral (Human papillomavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus and hepatitis), fungal (Candidiasis and Tinea cruris) and PID infections can be higher in women living with HIV (WLHIV) compared to the general population. This is because people with HIV may be more susceptible to STIs due to a weakened immune system. Additionally, engaging in high-risk sexual behaviours can also increase the risk of contracting STIs. Even though STIs can have major side effects, the positive aspect is that many of these issues can be avoided by conducting adequate screening in high-risk persons when there is a strong suspicion of infection. However, the test procedures must meet the requirements for the cost, accessibility, speed, sensitivity, specificity, and handling ease. The outcomes need to be reliable, quick, and economical.