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2nd Edition of World Congress on Infectious Diseases

June 17-18, 2022

June 17 -18, 2022 | Rome, Italy

Scientific Sessions

1. Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can be transmitted from one person to another either directly or indirectly (vector-borne). An infection is the infiltration of disease-causing pathogens into an organism's bodily tissues, their multiplication, and the host tissues' reaction to the infectious agents and the toxins they create. An infectious disease, often known as a transmissible or communicable disease, is a condition caused by an infection. Infections are caused by a variety of pathogens, the most common of which being bacteria and viruses. The immune system of hosts can help them fight diseases. Mammalian hosts respond to infections with an innate, generally inflammatory, reaction, which is followed by an adaptive response. Infectious disease refers to the branch of medicine that deals with infections.

  • Influenza
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Vector-Borne Diseases
  • Legionnaires’ Disease
  • Human Metapneumovirus
  • Valley Fever
  • Antibiotic-Resistant Diseases
  • Immunity and Infectious Diseases
3. Research on Medicine and Vaccine for Covid-19

COVID-19 has claimed the lives of about 18 million people. Researchers are working around the clock to better understand, cure, and finally eradicate COVID-19 and the sickness that comes with it. WHO and its partners are dedicated to developing COVID-19 vaccines as quickly as possible while maintaining the highest safety requirements. Vaccines go through several stages of research and testing - clinical trials typically have three phases, the last of which is aimed to examine the product's capacity to protect against disease, known as effectiveness. Each phase evaluates the level of risk. Vaccines have previously been developed through a sequence of steps that can take years to complete. Given the critical need for COVID-19 vaccines, enormous financial investments and scientific collaborations are now transforming vaccine development.

  • Antivirals
  • Vaccines
  • Clinical Trials
5. Parasitology & Infectious Diseases

Parasites are living things that eat and survive off of other living things, such as your body. Contaminated food or water, an insect bite, or sexual interaction are all ways to obtain them. Some parasite infections are simple to treat, while others are not. Parasites range in size from microscopic one-celled organisms known as protozoa to large worms visible to the human eye. Human parasites are parasitic parasites that infect people. Parasitic diseases can affect almost every living creature, including plants and warm-blooded animals. Parasitology is the study of parasitic diseases, as well as infections caused by fungus and bacteria.

Germs, also known as microorganisms, can be found in the air, soil, and water. Germs can be found on your skin and in your body. Many of them are safe, and some of them can even be beneficial. However, some of them have the potential to make you sick. Infectious diseases brought on by germs.

7. Vaccines and Vaccination

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and efficient technique to protect yourself from deadly diseases before they infect you. It strengthens your immune system by utilising your body's own defences to create resistance to specific pathogens. Vaccines teach your immune system to make antibodies in the same way that it does when you're exposed to a disease. Vaccines, on the other hand, do not cause disease or put you at danger of complications because they only include killed or weakened forms of pathogens like viruses or bacteria. Vaccines interact with your body's natural defences to create protection, lowering your risk of contracting a disease. Your immune system reacts when you receive a vaccine. As a result, the vaccination is a smart and safe technique to induce an immune response in the body without producing illness. Our immune systems are programmed to recall information. We are usually protected against a disease for years, decades, or even a lifetime after receiving one or more doses of a vaccine.

9. Nosocomial Infections & Control

A subset of infectious disorders obtained in a health-care facility is known as nosocomial infections, sometimes known as health-care-associated or hospital-acquired infections. The infection cannot be present at the time of admission; rather, it must develop at least 48 hours after admission to be deemed nosocomial. These infections can cause major complications such as sepsis and even death. The intensive care unit (ICU), where doctors treat critical disorders, is one of the most common wards where HAIs arise. A HAI affects about one out of every ten persons hospitalised to a hospital. They're also linked to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalisation. Infection control strategies, monitoring antimicrobial use and resistance, and implementing antibiotic control policies can all help to prevent nosocomial infections. At both the national and international levels, an effective surveillance system can help. To prevent and control nosocomial infections, all stakeholders must work together.

11. Veterinary Diseases

Animal disease is a disturbance in an animal's normal state that interrupts or changes its vital processes. Concern for animal diseases can be traced back to the earliest human interactions with animals, and it is mirrored in early religious and magical beliefs. Animal diseases continue to be a source of concern, owing to the financial losses they inflict as well as the possibility of transfer of the causative agents to people. The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of animal diseases is called veterinary medicine. Veterinarians diagnose and treat sick and wounded animals, as well as prevent the spread of animal diseases to humans and advise owners on proper animal care. In veterinary medicine, both the concept of health and the concept of disease are important.

13. Tropical Infectious Diseases

Tropical infections thrive in the tropics' hot and humid climate. Viruses, bacteria, and parasites cause them, and they spread by airborne transmission, sexual contact, and contaminated food and water sources. Through bug bites, insects or other animals can spread tropical infections. Neglected tropical infections afflict the world's poorest countries, affecting around 1.4 billion people in 149 countries. Every year, they cost poor countries billions of dollars. In temperate regions, diseases are less common, owing in part to the presence of a cold season, which limits insect populations by forcing hibernation. Exploration of tropical rainforests by humans, deforestation, rising immigration, and greater international air travel and other tourism to tropical regions have resulted in an increase in the occurrence of such diseases in non-tropical countries.

15. Infectious Diseases Prevention, Control and Cure

Microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungus, and parasites cause infectious diseases, which can transmit from person to person. Although infectious disease is an inescapable part of life, there are a variety of strategies available to help us avoid infection and cure disease once it has arisen. Individuals can take some basic efforts, while others are national or worldwide detection, prevention, and treatment methods. All are vital to the health and safety of communities, nations, and global populations. Infection control procedures are essential for preventing infections from spreading from one person to another, such as from a healthcare worker to a patient or vice versa. Infection control in health care and public health contexts refers to a variety of strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of infectious disease.

17. Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

The immune response is your body's way of recognising and defending itself against bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful substances. Antigens are recognised and responded to by the immune system, which defends the body from potentially hazardous chemicals. Antigens are substances on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, and bacteria that are usually proteins. Antigens include non-living entities such as poisons, chemicals, medications, and foreign particles (such as a splinter). Antigen-containing compounds are recognised by the immune system, which destroys or attempts to destroy them. Inflammation is one of the major mechanisms that alerts the immune system, but when this mechanism is disrupted, a long-term chronic inflammation develops, which is likely to be harmful to the host. An imbalance of circulating inflammatory chemicals is associated to the majority of age-related illnesses.

19. Internal Medicine for Infectious Diseases

An internist, often known as an internal medicine doctor, is a doctor who specialises in internal medicine. Internal medicine focuses on injury and disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Internal medicine specialists are educated to diagnose and treat common diseases, acute and chronic illnesses, and difficult diagnostic issues. Internal medicine doctors concentrate in the treatment of adults within general medicine, while they may have additional training in subspecialties such as infectious illnesses. Infectious disease medicine is an internal medicine discipline that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of infections. Although general internists and other specialty physicians treat the majority of infections, infectious disease internists are regularly called upon to help diagnose unknown illnesses and manage difficult, uncommon, or severe infections. Infectious disease medicine necessitates a thorough grasp of how bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasite illnesses manifest clinically in humans, as well as knowledge of antimicrobial medicines, antibiotic resistance, vaccines, and other immunobiological agents.

21. Blood Infectious Diseases

Microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that are carried in the bloodstream and can cause disease in humans are known as bloodborne infections. Malaria, syphilis, and brucellosis are among the many bloodborne diseases, as are Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HBV and HIV are bloodborne diseases that can be transmitted by coming into touch with infected human blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. These pathogens can spread from one person to another through a variety of means, including blood transfusions, sexual contact, open wounds, mucous membranes, and more. Health-care professionals are at risk of contracting blood-borne infections (HCWs).

23. Plants Diseases and Fungal Infection Control

A plant disease is a disruption or modification of a plant's normal state that disrupts or affects its important functions. Plants of all kinds, wild and cultivated, are susceptible to illness. Although each species is prone to specific diseases, there are only a few of them in each situation. Plant diseases vary in occurrence and prevalence from season to season, depending on the pathogen present, environmental circumstances, and the crops and kinds produced. Some plant kinds are more susceptible to disease outbreaks, while others are more resistant. Plant diseases have been known since before the beginning of known records. Plant disease losses can lead to famine and starvation, especially in less-developed nations where disease-control technologies are restricted and yearly losses of 30 to 50 percent for important crops are not uncommon.

25. Market Analysis of Infectious Diseases

The global infectious disease diagnostics market is expected to rise at a CAGR of 7.2 percent from USD 28.1 billion in 2021 to USD 39.8 billion in 2026. The global incidence of infectious diseases and the emergence of COVID-19, as well as rising awareness for early disease identification, a shift in focus from centralised laboratories to distributed POC testing, and technical improvements, are driving market expansion. Infectious disease prevalence in both established and developing nations will boost the infectious disease diagnostics market's growth. The rising number of prescriptions for infectious disease diagnostic tests is due to the diagnosis and management of such disorders. During the projection period, these factors, combined with the growing tendency toward preventative care, are projected to increase demand for infectious disease diagnostics.

27. Ebola and Zika Viral Infections

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates, is a serious, frequently fatal sickness. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a devastating disease that affects both humans and nonhuman primates. After becoming infected with the virus, symptoms often appear two to three weeks later. Fever, sore throat, muscle soreness, and headaches are generally the first signs. Vomiting, diarrhoea, dermatitis, and reduced liver and renal function are common side effects, and some people bleed internally and externally as a result. The disease kills between 25% and 90% of people affected, with an average death rate of 50%. The most common cause of death is shock from fluid loss, which happens six to 16 days after the first symptoms show. Direct contact with infected body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals, or contact with items that have recently been contaminated with infected body fluids, is how the virus spreads.

Zika virus disease is caused by a virus that is mostly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that bite during the day. Fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint discomfort, malaise, and headache are all common symptoms. The symptoms usually persist 2–7 days. The majority of those infected with the Zika virus do not experience any symptoms. In Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific, Zika virus outbreaks have been reported.

29. Non communicable Diseases

Chronic diseases, also known as noncommunicable diseases, are long-term diseases caused by a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioural factors. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) claim the lives of 41 million people each year, accounting for 71% of all deaths worldwide. More than 15 million people between the ages of 30 and 69 die each year from an NCD, with 85 percent of these "premature" deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Low- and middle-income nations account for 77% of all NCD mortality. Tobacco use, physical inactivity, an unhealthy diet, and the harmful use of alcohol are all modifiable behaviours that increase the risk of NCDs. Although NCDs cause the majority of morbidity and mortality in adults, risk factors are introduced early in life. As a result, NCDs and their risk factors are extremely important to young people. NCDs are rapidly spreading over the world and have reached epidemic levels in many countries, owing to globalisation, industrialisation, and growing urbanization, as well as demographic and lifestyle changes.

31. Viruses and Cancer

A virus is a parasitic organism that cannot replicate on its own. A virus, on the other hand, can command the cell machinery to make new viruses once it has infected a susceptible cell. The genetic substance of most viruses is either RNA or DNA. Single-stranded or double-stranded nucleic acids are both possible. The nucleic acid and a protein outer shell make up the entire infectious virus particle, known as a virion. Only enough RNA or DNA is present in the smallest viruses to encode four proteins. The most complicated genes can encode between 100 and 200 proteins. Infectious pathogens are responsible for around a fifth of all human malignancies globally. Seven distinct viruses have been causally related to human oncogenesis in 12% of cancers.

2. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

Coronaviruses are a type of virus that can infect humans and cause respiratory disease. The multiple crown-like spikes on the surface of the virus give it the name "corona." Coronaviruses that cause sickness in humans include SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the common cold. Hosts' immune systems can aid in the battle against illness. Mammalian hosts have an innate, usually inflammatory, response to infections, which is followed by an adaptive response. The branch of medicine that deals with infections is known as infectious disease. COVID-19 is still a mystery to scientists. What is known is that people who are infected with COVID-19 can disseminate the virus to others before they develop symptoms (when they are still "asymptomatic"). If you do develop symptoms, the CDC states that you are no longer contagious 10 days following the onset of your symptoms.

  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention   
  • Management
4. Bacterial Infectious Diseases

Bacteria are single-celled, microscopic organisms that can be found practically anywhere. Bacteria can be found in any climate and geographical area on the planet. Some live in the air, while others live in the water or the earth. Bacteria can be found on and within plants, animals, and humans. Although the word "bacteria" has a negative connotation, bacteria play an important role in both organisms and the environment. A bacterial infection occurs when a hazardous strain of bacteria multiplies on or within the body. Bacteria have the ability to infect any part of the body. The signs and symptoms of a bacterial or viral infection differ depending on whatever part of the body is infected. The symptoms of both might be very similar at times.

6. Causes and Symptoms of Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases brought on by bacteria, viruses, fungus, or parasites. Our bodies are home to a variety of creatures. In most cases, they're innocuous or even beneficial. However, some microbes can cause sickness under particular circumstances. Some infectious diseases are contagious and can be spread from one person to the next. Insects and other animals can spread several diseases. Others can be contracted by consuming tainted food or drinking tainted water, or by being exposed to organisms in the environment. Fever and exhaustion are common signs and symptoms, which vary depending on the organism that is causing the infection.

8. Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Paediatric infectious diseases are communicable diseases that affect children. If a child develops persistent illness as a result of an infectious agent, an infectious diseases specialist has the experience and training to properly diagnose and treat the child from infancy through adolescence. The impact of developmental changes that occur during the birth period, infancy, childhood, and adolescence will lead to more rational, safer, and effective drug usage in the paediatric population. Infectious and immunologic disorders caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are treated by paediatric infectious diseases experts. For more complex infections, other paediatric infectious diseases specialists are consulted.

10. Viral Infectious Diseases

Viruses are microscopic germs. They're made up of genetic material encased in a protein coat. Viruses are responsible for common infectious ailments like the common cold, flu, and warts. They also spread diseases like HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and COVID-19. Viruses function similarly to hijackers. They infect healthy cells and use them to proliferate and produce more viruses like themselves. This can cause you to become ill by killing, damaging, or changing your cells. Viruses assault certain cells in your body, including those in your liver, respiratory system, and blood. Virus infections are one of man's most common illnesses. Children are predicted to have two to seven respiratory infections each year, whereas adults have one to three such episodes per year.

12. Fungal Infectious Diseases

Fungi can live in a variety of environments, including the air, soil, water, and plants. Some fungus can also be found naturally in the human body. There are beneficial and detrimental fungus, just like there are beneficial and hazardous microorganisms. When pathogenic fungi infiltrate the body, they can be difficult to eradicate since they can persist in the environment and re-infect the individual who is attempting to recover. Infections caused by fungi are frequent in many parts of the natural world. Fungal infections in humans occur when an invasive fungus takes over an area of the body and overwhelms the immune system. Anyone can have a fungus infection, and they can arise in any region of the body.

14. STD and HIV Infection

The term STD refers to a sexually transmitted disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are another term for STDs. STDs are infections that are transmitted from one person to another by sexual activity, such as anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses are all responsible for STDs. The organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) can spread from person to person by blood, sperm, vaginal, and other bodily fluids. These infections can sometimes be passed from mother to kid non sexually, such as during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or sharing needles.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that affects cells in the body that help it fight infections, making a person more susceptible to other infections and diseases. Contact with certain bodily fluids of an HIV-positive individual, most commonly during unprotected intercourse (sex without the use of a condom or HIV treatment to prevent or treat HIV), or sharing injection drug equipment spreads the virus. If HIV is not treated, it can progress to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

16. Neuro Infectious Diseases

From the brain and spinal cord to muscles and nerves, neuroinfectious disorders affect the nervous system. Infections that damage the brain are known as neuro-infectious disorders. The brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction (the connection between the nerve terminal and the muscle), and muscles are all susceptible to viral and inflammatory illnesses. This might happen in the presence of other diseases in the body, or it can be limited to the neurological system. Symptoms vary depending on which area of the nervous system is afflicted and which disease is diagnosed. It can be difficult to distinguish between an infectious and an inflammatory disorder of the nervous system since some conditions are difficult to detect and there might be a lot of overlap.

  • Blood Brain Barriers
  • Diagnostic Algorithms
  • Disease Pathophysiology
  • Early and Late Phase Clinical Trials
  • Molecular Techniques
  • Neurological Syndromes
  • New Therapeutic Targets
  • Prions, Transposable and Retroviral Elements
18. Pharmacology of Infectious Diseases

A drug may be defined as any artificial, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule that exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism, and pharmacology is a branch of medicine, biology, and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action (sometimes the word pharmakon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). It is the study of how chemicals interact with living organisms to impact normal or pathological biochemical function. Pharmaceuticals are defined as compounds that have therapeutic effects. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are the two primary branches of pharmacology. Pharmacodynamics is the study of a drug's impacts on biological systems, while pharmacokinetics is the study of a drug's effects on biological systems. Pharmacodynamics is concerned with the interactions of chemicals with biological receptors, while pharmacokinetics is concerned with the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from biological systems. The terms pharmacology and pharmacy are not interchangeable, and the two are commonly used interchangeably.

20. Clinical and Case Reports

Clinical Case Studies and Reports are devoted to a study of an individual or a group of related disorders, as well as their critical research. It might be a long study, therefore different stages and changes can be detailed and documented. The proper documentation of these Clinical Case Studies and Reports would allow researchers, clinicians, and students to examine such fascinating situations and judge how the therapy was carried out theoretically.

A case report is a complete account of a patient's symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in medicine. A patient's demographic profile may be included in case reports, although they usually discuss an unusual or novel incident. A literature evaluation of previous recorded cases is included in some case reports. Case reports are professional narratives that provide feedback on clinical practise guidelines and serve as a foundation for detecting early signs of efficacy, adverse events, and cost. They can be used in medical, scientific, or educational research.

22. Epidemiology

Epidemiology is derived from the Greek term epi, which means on or upon, demos, which means people, and logos, which means study of. To put it another way, epidemiology is the study of what happens to a group of people. Many definitions have been proposed, but the one below best represents epidemiology's fundamental concepts and public health spirit. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations, as well as the application of this knowledge to the prevention of disease. It is a cornerstone of public health, influencing policy and evidence-based practise by identifying disease risk factors and preventative healthcare priorities. Epidemiologists assist in study planning, data collection, statistical analysis, and interpretation and dissemination. Epidemiology has aided in the development of techniques for clinical research, public health investigations, and, to a lesser extent, basic biological science research.

24. Antimicrobials/Antibiotics/Antibacterial

Microorganisms are killed or slowed by antimicrobial agents. Bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and fungus such as mould and mildew are examples of microorganisms. An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria. Antimicrobial drugs are classified by the bacteria against which they are most effective. Antibiotics, for example, are used to treat bacteria, whereas antifungals are used to treat fungi. They can also be categorised based on their function. Microbicides are those that kill microorganisms, while bacteriostatic agents are those that simply restrict their growth.

Antibiotics, also called antibacterial, are drugs that kill or slow the growth of germs. They include a variety of potent medications that are used to treat microbial infections. Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections such as the common cold, flu, and most coughs. Antibiotics are potent drugs that combat infections and, when taken correctly, can save lives. They either prevent bacteria from multiplying or kill them.

26. Sepsis/Septicemia

Diseases and your body's response to those infections are referred to as sepsis and septicemia in healthcare. Both terms come from the Greek word sepsis, which literally means "to putrefy" or "to render rotten." Although the terms sepsis and septicemia are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not interchangeable because their definitions differ. Septicaemia is when microorganisms enter the bloodstream, they produce blood poisoning, which leads to sepsis. Sepsis is a life-threatening infection reaction that can result in tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Sepsis is an infection-induced inflammatory response that is severe. When your body is threatened by a serious infection, your immune system sends out chemical messengers to signal that something is wrong. Inflammation is caused by these chemical messengers all across the body.

28. Orthopaedic Infections

Infection is a prevalent concern in orthopaedic trauma patients, and it is associated with high financial and psychosocial consequences, as well as increased morbidity. Infection rates in orthopaedic trauma patients are significant, ranging from 5% to 10% depending on the injury's location and severity, as well as the kind of fracture. Infections of the skin and other soft tissues can develop to infections of the bones and joints (osteomyelitis) (septic arthritis). Orthopaedic infections can develop chronic if not treated promptly. As a result, even a minor injury on the fingertip can render your hand permanently immobile. In hospitals, doctors and nurses wear gloves and gowns and wash their hands frequently to prevent the spread of infections. Orthopaedic infection is a costly issue with little progress in research and few innovations that affect clinical practise and outcomes.

30. Problems in Infectious Disease Practice

Infectious diseases continue to wreak havoc on people's health and health-care systems. Millions of people are affected by endemic diseases such chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections, which exacerbate health inequities. Additional problems include health-care-associated and foodborne illnesses, both of which have been the focus of extensive prevention efforts, with some success in some regions, but with significant hurdles still ahead. Despite significant progress in reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases, cases and outbreaks of these diseases continue to occur, owing to a variety of contributing factors. Emerging and re-emerging infections continue to pose a threat to prevention and control methods around the world, while the growing problem of antibiotic resistance requires immediate attention. Ensure that scientific and technological developments in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are adequately incorporated into public health is a top goal for infectious disease control.

32. Critical Care and its Applications

By obtaining, discussing, disseminating, and promoting evidence-based material important to intensivists, Critical Care aspires to enhance the care of critically ill patients. Patients who are critically ill require extensive treatment from a multidisciplinary team. The medical specialty of intensive care assists patients whose lives are in immediate danger, such as when a vital organ like the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, or nervous system is compromised. The length of a patient's stay in intensive care varies depending on their health and might range from a few hours to several weeks, if not months. Intensive care is frequently misunderstood as a passing fancy, which is sometimes accurate. It is also a long-term specialty for many patients who will be in the services for several days, if not weeks, to allow the organ damage to heal and the patient to be transferred to another service with a lower degree of care.

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