Title : Antibiotic-resistant strains of klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring novel virulence proteins with rising temperature
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious issue since, by 2050, it's predicted to cause up to 10 million deaths globally (1-3). The emergence of fatal bacterial strains that are drug-resistant has been attributed to a number of factors, including the overuse of antibiotics, the sluggish development of new medicines, a lack of healthcare resources, and an increase in the average global temperature. One of those very virulent types that causes serious human illnesses is Klebsiella pneumoniae. Recently, the increased incidence of K. pneumoniae and novel virulent characteristics brought on by temperature-dependent genetic transfer and pathogenic alteration of drugresistance genes have drawn attention. The relationship between temperature increase, pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae is examined in a number of recent research. For instance, Weibin Li et al. observed that a 1.14-fold increase in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was connected to a 1o C rise in average ambient temperature (4). Another research by MacFadden et al. (5) found that antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae increased by 2.2% for every 10°C rise in temperature across areas. In addition, warmer temperatures made it easier for bacteria with resistance to antibiotics to spread among people, animals, and the environment (6, 7). As a result, temperature rise is a significant factor in the development of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae, which is linked to the expression of a variety of distinctive and potentially virulent factors, including aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferase, lipopolysaccharide proteins, tyrosine-protein kinase, peroxidase proteins, and ELaB protein (8, 9). Yet, it is still unclear how K. pneumoniae develops resistance more quickly than other bacteria and produces more pathogenic proteins when the temperature rises. With this perspective, the goal of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying this rapid resistance, to comprehend the genomic variations, mutations, gene-regulated pathogenic expression, pattern formation, and functional changes of K. pneumoniae as a result of global warming, as well as to pinpoint the virulence factors that contribute to severity.