Infectious diseases continue to wreak havoc on people's health and health-care systems. Millions of people are affected by endemic diseases such chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections, which exacerbate health inequities. Additional problems include health-care-associated and foodborne illnesses, both of which have been the focus of extensive prevention efforts, with some success in some regions, but with significant hurdles still ahead. Despite significant progress in reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases, cases and outbreaks of these diseases continue to occur, owing to a variety of contributing factors. Emerging and re-emerging infections continue to pose a threat to prevention and control methods around the world, while the growing problem of antibiotic resistance requires immediate attention. Ensure that scientific and technological developments in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are adequately incorporated into public health is a top goal for infectious disease control.