Title : The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal ecology in children 2 months through 5 years
This study evaluates the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) nasopharynx (NP) colonization in response to the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, specifically 7- Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (2000-2009), 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (2010-2023) and 20-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (2023- future date). It is anticipated that the replacement of PCV13 with PCV20, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with 7 additional polysaccharide conjugates to CRM197 will enhance the protection against non-vaccine serotypes which are in circulation in communities. The project will evaluate the dynamic changes in pneumococcal colonization over the 5-year time line from 2021-2026. Pneumococcal nasopharynx colonization is detected through nasopharyngeal culture and molecular techniques. The primary source of pneumococcal transmission occurs among the pediatric population and between children and adults. The impact of PCV7 and 13 on pneumococcal colonization over the prior 20 years created a herd effect that resulted in a reduction in pneumococcal disease in unimmunized children and adults. Studies of NP colonization has led to a deeper understanding of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) effectiveness and the role of herd immunity in protecting the population, the emergence of replacement serotypes, the variation in invasive capability of each serotype and evolution of antimicrobial resistance resulting from the evolving ecology. In this 5-yearstudy, researchers at the Pelton Lab in Boston Medical Center set out to understand the prevalence of NP carriage of 13vPnC serotypes, the 7 unique 20vPnC serotypes and NVST (non-vaccine serotypes) within the pediatric population prior to and subsequent to the introduction of PCV 20 (Fall 2023).